The first section consists of nineteen articles by distinguished men, each one a recognized authority on the creed for which he speaks, setting forth the clear and candid stories of our own faiths and those of our neighbors. Eastern Orthodoxy has been present since the Russian colonization of Alaska. Between 1990 and 2008, the Catholic population proportion of the New England states fell from 50% to 36% and in New York fell from 44% to 37%, while it rose in California from 29% to 37% and in Texas from 23% to 32%. New Protestant branches like Adventism emerged; Restorationists and other Christians like the Jehovah's Witnesses, the Latter Day Saint movement, Churches of Christ and Church of Christ, Scientist, as well as Unitarian and Universalist communities all spread in the 19th century. Since then, the Catholic church has founded hundreds of other colleges and universities, along with thousands of primary and secondary schools. [35] In 2007, members of evangelical churches comprised 26% of the American population, while another 18% belonged to mainline Protestant churches, and 7% belonged to historically black churches. Various dissenting Protestants, who left the Church of England, greatly diversified the religious landscape. [107] In 2007, there were estimated to be between 250,000 and 500,000 Sikhs living in the United States, with the largest populations living on the East and West Coasts, with additional populations in Detroit, Chicago, and Austin. However, to keep their status as tax-exempt organizations they must not officially endorse a candidate. Strong support for black, women, Catholic candidates", "Atheists, Muslims See Most Bias as Presidential Candidates", "In U.S., Socialist Presidential Candidates Least Appealing", "Tulsi Gabbard, First Hindu In Congress, Uses Bhagavad Gita At Swearing-In", "ARDA Sources for Religious Congregations & Membership Data", "The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), Year 2010 Report", The ARIS (American Religious Identification Survey) time series surveys, Material History of American Religion Project, Drafting and ratification of Constitution, Office of the Director of National Intelligence, Births of U.S. states and territories by race/ethnicity, Race and ethnicity in the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Religion_in_the_United_States&oldid=995308283, Articles with dead external links from November 2019, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles needing additional references from December 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2018, Articles needing additional references from February 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Are partially responsible for acts of violence carried out by other Muslims, other – including Mormon & Christ Scientist, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormon, LDS). Approximately 25% of the Jewish American population lives in New York City. Schools like the University of Notre Dame is ranked best in its state (Indiana) as Georgetown University is ranked best in the District of Columbia. Some have been here for centuries, and some are finding their way through a … [3] Freedom of religion in the United States is guaranteed in the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. Question 2: Some people think that for an individual or a small group of people to target and kill civilians is sometimes justified, while others think that this kind of violence is never justified. [78], The Pew Research Center report on American Judaism released in October 2013 revealed that 22% of Jewish Americans say they have "no religion" and the majority of respondents do not see religion as the primary constituent of Jewish identity. Other notable Founding Fathers may have been more directly deist. Adult Pop. [76][77] According to the 1990 National Jewish Population Survey, 38% of Jews were affiliated with the Reform tradition, 35% were Conservative, 6% were Orthodox, 1% were Reconstructionists, 10% linked themselves to some other tradition, and 10% said they are "just Jewish". [12] That influence continues in American culture, social life, and politics. ), Nonspecific Protestant Family (Historically Black Protestant Trad. One sign of the lack of attachment of Americans to religion is that 27% do not expect a religious funeral at their death. ), Missionary Baptist (Historically Black Protestant Trad. Asian Americans are substantially more likely to indicate no religious identity than other racial or ethnic groups. The American Religions Collection includes materials from Hebrew Christians and Pentecostal groups to Baptist organizations and Grace Gospel organizations. [31] According to the Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies newsletter published March 2017, based on data from 2010, Christians were the largest religious population in all 3,143 counties in the country. Items in lower case italics are classes of religion and not actual religions. [31] Christianity was introduced during the period of European colonization. [citation needed]. Pentecostalism emerged in the early 20th century as a result of the Azusa Street Revival. The first section consists of nineteen articles by distinguished men, each one a recognized authority on the creed for which he speaks, setting forth the clear and candid stories of our own faiths and those of our neighbors. During the same decades the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), a Vaishnavite Hindu reform organization, was founded in the US by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Lady Liberty League, an organization that fights for religious freedom for Wiccans, pagans, and other nature religion … (The most recognizable cities of California, for example, are named after Catholic saints. 刊行年月 2009.12.01 版表示 4 ページ数 300p 大きさ H254 x W178 ISBN 9780664233204 Religious Patterns in Colonial America - 1680s-1730s Part IV. Their results found that majority of americans, across faith groups, do hold balanced views on Islam and Muslims, and also highlighted the shared sentiments of Muslim and Jewish communities on many of the questions, and the gaps identified between the Evangelical Christians polled and the other members of the study.[218]. Organizers called the estimated crowd of 8,000–10,000 the largest-ever US gathering of atheists in one place. They founded most of the country's leading institutes of higher education. The United States government does not collect religious data in its census. 81 entries are listed here. Kingsley et al., "The College and the Church,", "The most and least educated U.S. religious groups," and "how income varies among U.S. religious groups" in Pew Research Center: 26% and 19% of 75 million Catholics are college graduates and high income earners, respectively. [70][71] However, owing to the sheer size or demographic head count of Catholics, more individual Catholics have graduate degrees and are in the highest income brackets than have or are individuals of any other religious community. A large number of people in North America classify themselves as "other," which can refer to other forms of Christianity that merge multiple faiths into one. The historic mainline churches and denominations have experienced the steepest declines, while the non-denominational Christian identity has been trending upward, particularly since 2001. A significant number of people identify themselves as American Jewson ethnic and cultural grounds, rather than religious ones. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Membership in religious … The Christian Endeavor Society of Missouri, an early forerunner of the American Religious Right, instituted a campaign to ban movies depicting kissing between non-relatives. Of these religiously unaffiliated Americans, 37% classify themselves as spiritual but not religious.[130]. ), Nonspecific Protestant Family (Mainline Trad. ", while 7% said no and 1% had no opinion. Based on their stated beliefs rather than their religious identification in 2008, 70% of Americans believe in a personal God, roughly 12% of Americans are atheist (no God) or agnostic (unknowable or unsure), and another 12% are deistic (a higher power but no personal God). Now it’s a little more than one in three. (+1) 202-419-4300 | Main The phrase “under God” can mean something different to members of the approximately 313 religions and denominations in the United States, from monotheists who believe in one God (in the Judeo-Christian and other traditions), to polytheists who believe in many Gods, to atheists who believe in no God, or a God as represented by animal spirits, alien groups, or psychoactive substances. South America is also home to other religious groups which include Protestantism, Islam, and Judaism. The 2001 ARIS study projected from its sample that there are about 5.3 million adults in the American Jewis… These religious beliefs include diverse origin myths, burial rituals, the existence of a Creator, and an afterlife, and are still held by many Native Americans today. After Christianity, Judaism is the next largest religious affiliation in the US, though this identification is not necessarily indicative of religious beliefs or practices. ), Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA), Episcopalian/Anglican Family (Mainline Trad. Among the 4.3 million American Jews described as "strongly connected" to Judaism, over 80% have some sort of active engagement with Judaism, ranging from attendance at daily prayer services on one end of the spectrum to attending Passover Seders or lighting Hanukkah candles on the other. ), Holiness Family (Historically Black Protestant Trad. The United States has the world's largest Christian population. These colonists (“Puritans”) emigrated from Englandto avoid conflict and purify their church of Roman Catholic influences. [3], In 1963, 90% of U.S. adults claimed to be Christians while only 2% professed no religious identity. On Common Ground Credits On Common Ground: World Religions in America and pluralism.org are dedicated to the people of the many religious, secular, and interfaith communities throughout the United States who have welcomed us into your midst and have given generously of … The Great Awakenings gave birth to multiple evangelical Protestant denominations; membership in Methodist and Baptist churches increased drastically in the Second Great Awakening. Religions that cannot be classed as either world religions nor traditional folk religions, and are usually recent in their inception. [79], A 2009 study estimated the Jewish population (including both those who define themselves as Jewish by religion and those who define themselves as Jewish in cultural or ethnic terms) to be between 6.0 and 6.4 million. ), Apostolic Pentecostal (Evangelical Trad. In a 2009 Gallup International survey, 41.6%[211] of American residents stated that they attended a church, synagogue, or mosque once a week or almost every week. Asian religions have a long and intriguing history in America. The movement had been previously known as the Mental Sciences or the Christian Sciences. Bernie Sanders ran against Hillary Clinton in the Democratic primary of 2016. In 2006 Keith Ellison of Minnesota became the first Muslim elected to Congress; when re-enacting his swearing-in for photos, he used the copy of the Qur'an once owned by Thomas Jefferson. They also associated atheists with undesirable attributes such as amorality, criminal behavior, rampant materialism and cultural elitism. The religion of the spouse or partner was also asked. [75], According to the Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies newsletter published March, 2017, based on data from 2010, Jews were the largest minority religion in 231 counties out of the 3143 counties in the country. [129], One fifth of the US public and a third of adults under the age of 30 are reportedly unaffiliated with any religion, however they identify as being spiritual in some way. From the 19th century to the present, Catholics moved to the US in large numbers due to immigration of Italians, Hispanics, Portuguese, French, Polish, Irish, Highland Scots, Dutch, Flemish, Hungarians, Germans, Lebanese (Maronite), and other ethnic groups. [30], The most popular religion in the U.S. is Christianity, comprising the majority of the population (73.7% of adults in 2016). The followers of Nordic Paganism include Odinists, Tyrists, Lokians, Asatru, and practitioners of Seiðr, among other varying followers. ), Methodist Family (Historically Black Protestant Trad. In 1963, the Reformed Druids of North America (RDNA) was founded by students at Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota. Scientology emerged in the 1950s. The U.S. population continues to show signs of becoming less religious, with one out of every seven Americans failing to indicate a religious identity in 2008. This year the Religions in America Workshop will meet on Thursdays from 12:00 – 1:15 pm in the Marty Center Library or Seminar Room on the second floor of Swift Hall (next to the elevator). Many other religions are represented in the United States, including Shinto, Caodaism, Thelema, Santería, Kemetism, Religio Romana, Zoroastrianism, Vodou, Pastafarianism, and many forms of New Age spirituality. ISPU also conducted a series of impact reports on Muslim Americans in both Michigan and New York City. Among Jews who gave Judaism as their religion, 55% based Jewish identity on ancestry and culture, and 66% did not view belief in God as essential to Judaism. ), Congregationalist Family (Mainline Trad. The decision was mainly influenced by European Rationalist and Protestant ideals, but was also a consequence of the pragmatic concerns of minority religious groups and small states that did not want to be under the power or influence of a national religion that did not represent them. [72], After Christianity, Judaism is the next largest religious affiliation in the US, though this identification is not necessarily indicative of religious beliefs or practices. [113], In a 2006 nationwide poll, University of Minnesota researchers found that despite an increasing acceptance of religious diversity, atheists were generally distrusted by other Americans, who trusted them less than Muslims, recent immigrants and other minority groups in "sharing their vision of American society". [139] The New Thought concept was named by Emma Curtis Hopkins ("teacher of teachers") after Hopkins broke off from Mary Baker Eddy's Church of Christ, Scientist. [67] Hindus also have higher acceptance towards homosexuality (71%), which is higher than the general public (62%). The Cambridge History of Religions in America January 2009 Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a … [142] UUs have historical ties to anti-war, civil rights, and LGBT rights movements,[143] as well as providing inclusive church services for the broad spectrum of liberal Christians, liberal Jews, secular humanists, LGBT, Jewish-Christian parents and partners, Earth-centered/Wicca, and Buddhist meditation adherents. As a … A 2010 Gallup poll found 80% of Americans believe in a god, 12% believe in a universal spirit, 6% don't believe in either, 1% chose "other", and 1% had no opinion. According to a 2008 ARIS survey, belief in God varies considerably by region. Among those surveyed, 44% said they were Reform Jews, 22% said they were Conservative Jews, and 14% said they were Orthodox Jews. [15] The Supreme Court since the 1940s has interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment as applying the First Amendment to the state and local governments. While the absolute number of Christians rose from 1990 to 2008, the percentage of Christians dropped from 86% to 76%. The figures, updated to 2014, ranged from 51% in Utah to 17% in Vermont. In the same time, several immigrant groups from the Middle East, mainly Armenians, Copts and Syriacs, brought Oriental Orthodoxy to America.[61][62]. For over two centuries, Asian immigrants have been coming to America and bringing their religions with them. [88][89] The first Muslim elected to Congress was Keith Ellison in 2006,[90] followed by André Carson in 2008. Though just shy of 9% of the NYC population, Muslims make up over 12% of the city's pharmacists, lab technicians, and over 9% of all doctors. [13] Several of the original Thirteen Colonies were established by settlers who wished to practice their own religion within a community of like-minded people: the Massachusetts Bay Colony was established by English Puritans (Congregationalists), Pennsylvania by British Quakers, Maryland by English Catholics, and Virginia by English Anglicans. Norse mythology is portrayed in popular culture and Nordic symbols and teachings are also used by many white supremacy groups. World Religions in America, Fourth Edition: An Introduction - Jacob Neusner - 洋書の購入は楽天ブックスで。全品送料無料!購入毎に「楽天ポイント」が貯まってお得!みんなのレビュー・感想も満載。 (Note: "W. Religions in Asian America : Building Faith Communities. During the 19th century, two main branches of Eastern Christianity also arrived to America. Evang." Adult respondents were asked the open-ended question, "What is your religion, if any?" % of U.S. Examine Religions in America D uring his 2016 Fulbright Specialist Lectureship in the Institute of Sociology, Pazmany Peter University in Budapest, the American Religious Experience Director asked his students to write brief papers on the topic of the Sociology and History of American Religions. America’s New Religious Landscape: Three Major Trends The National Decline in White Christian Identity. America gathered religions from around the world, was changed by them, and proceeded to change them. During the same time period, US intellectuals started to take interest in Buddhism. The 89 percent Christian share of the U.S. population just after World War II meant (treating children as having the same faiths as their parents) that America held about 130 million … [23][24][25] The phrase first appeared on U.S. coins in 1864. "[153] President Gerald Ford agreed with and repeated this statement in 1974.[154]. The second half, by contrast, saw the emergence of new approaches, and the move of Buddhism into the mainstream and making itself a mass and social religious phenomenon. The first time Hinduism entered the U.S. is not clearly identifiable. (+1) 202-419-4349 | Fax The History of Religions: Essays in Methodology by Mircea Eliade and Joseph M. Kitagawa (eds.) 34% of American adults considered themselves "Born Again or Evangelical Christians" in 2008. Elaborate rituals and such dances as the Sundance, Round, Snake, Crow, Ghost and others were developed and led by such native leaders as Wodiziwob, Wovoka , Black Elk , Big Foot , Sitting Bull , and others. [136], Wicca advanced in North America in the 1960s by Raymond Buckland, an expatriate Briton who visited Gardner's Isle of Man coven to gain initiation. The lowest rate is in the West with 59% reporting a belief in God, and the highest rate is in the South at 86%. However, some states had established religions in some form until the 1830s. Religious Self-Identification of the U.S. Apart from the religions discussed above, other religions practiced in North America include Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and the Bahá'í Faith. Only four presidential candidates for major parties have been Catholics, all for the Democratic party: Joe Lieberman was the first major presidential candidate that was Jewish, on the Gore–Lieberman campaign of 2000 (although John Kerry and Barry Goldwater both had Jewish ancestry, they were practicing Christians). Protestant denominations make up the majority of the Christians in the ethnicities. [32] According to a 2014 survey conducted by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public life, 1.7% of adults in the U.S. identify Judaism as their religion. Adult Population: 1990, 2001, 2008[65]Figures are not adjusted for refusals to reply; investigators suspect refusals are possibly more representative of "no religion" than any other group. [80] According to a study done in 2000 there were an estimated 6.14 million Jewish people in the country, about 2% of the population.[81]. Although American Muslim education levels are similar to other religious communities, namely Christians, within the Muslim American population, Muslim women surpass Muslim men in education, with 31% of Muslim women having graduated from a four-year university. [135] Modern Druidism arrived in North America first in the form of fraternal Druidic organizations in the nineteenth century, and orders such as the Ancient Order of Druids in America were founded as distinct American groups as early as 1912. [32] Roughly 48.9% of Americans are Protestants, 23.0% are Catholics, 1.8% are Mormons (members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints). The challenge to Christianity in the U.S. does not come from other religions but rather from a rejection of all forms of organized religion. [27] In 2001, there were an estimated 766,000 Hindus in the US, about 0.2% of the total population.[102][103]. Asian Religions in America: A Documentary History is the first text to show the breadth and depth of the American encounter with Asian religions. Various polls have been conducted to determine Americans' actual beliefs regarding a god: "Spiritual but not religious" (SBNR) is self-identified stance of spirituality that takes issue with organized religion as the sole or most valuable means of furthering spiritual growth. Just two would be Mormon, two would be Jewish and one would be Muslim. If the U.S. contained just 100 adults, 25 would be people who identify with evangelical Protestant denominations, 23 would be religiously unaffiliated and 21 would be Catholic. Interdenominational evangelicalism and Pentecostalism emerged; new Protestant denominations such as Adventism; non-denominational movements such as the Restoration Movement (which over time separated into the Churches of Christ, the Christian churches and churches of Christ, and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)); Jehovah's Witnesses (called "Bible Students" in the latter part of the 19th century); and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormonism). [59], Beginning around 1600 European settlers introduced Anglican and Puritan religion, as well as Baptist, Presbyterian, Lutheran, Quaker, and Moravian denominations.[60]. Pop., 2000 % Change 1990 - 2000; Christianity: 151,225,000: 159,030,000: 76.5% +5%: Nonreligious/Secular About one third of the sample was asked more detailed demographic questions. [63] Lutheranism is most prominent in the Upper Midwest, with North Dakota having the highest percentage of Lutherans (35% according to a 2001 survey). 2001 Est. The Jewish community in the United States is composed predominantly of Ashkenazi Jews whose ancestors emigrated from Central and Eastern Europe. [56] Though small in number in the beginning, Catholicism grew over the centuries to become the largest single denomination in the US, primarily through immigration, but also through the acquisition of continental territories under the jurisdiction of French and Spanish Catholic powers. This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 10:06. First mention of the faith in the U.S. was at the inaugural Parliament of World Religions, which was held at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. Since the 1990s, the religious share of Christians has decreased, while Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Sikhism, and other religions have spread, mainly from immigration. 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