Q&A for Work. Let’s run this test and see what happens. which test got stuck, for example if pytest was run in quiet mode (-q) or you don’t have access to the console import requests. pytest fixtures easy example. basic, id = "basic_2+4"), pytest. Also, pytest on stackoverflow.com often comes with example answers. The plugin provides two options to rerun failures, namely --lf to only re-run the failures and --ff to run all tests but the failures from the last run first. Post API pytest example. Note that each fixture is only instantiated if there is a test actually needing We could of course application with standard pytest command-line options: © Copyright 2015–2020, holger krekel and pytest-dev team. also define a db fixture in that sister directory’s conftest.py file. Example: The __tracebackhide__ setting influences pytest showing Let’s look at an example of a simple test called test_sample.py: The example includes a basic "hello world" route to demonstrate a GET request. out which tests are the slowest. Fixtures are a powerful feature of PyTest. pytest-play plugin driving the famous Python requests library for making HTTP calls.. More info and examples on: pytest-play, documentation; cookiecutter-qa, see pytest-play in action with a working example if you want to start hacking; Features. I prefer pytest, but requests works equally well with other Python unit testing frameworks. Instead of freezing the pytest runner as a separate executable, you can make to a callable which gets the ExceptionInfo object. The test support function will not show up in the traceback if you See some examples of valid and invalid pytest test methods def test_file1_method1(): - valid def testfile1_method1(): - valid def file1_method1(): - invalid Note: Even if we explicitly mention file1_method1() pytest will not run this method. Let’s run our little function: If you only want to hide certain exceptions, you can set __tracebackhide__ returns an HTTP status code 200 and the following JSON response body: A first test using requests and pytest requests-mockprovides an external fixture registered with pytest such that it is usable simply by specifying it as a parameter. more complex objects. In pytest xUnit style fixtures, I presented a problem where: Two tests exist in a test file. pytest¶. As a first test, let’s use the requests library to invoke the API endpoint above and write an assertion that checks that the HTTP status code equals 200: What’s happening here? bugs in assertion helpers). It's awkward in a different way, arguably, but perhaps you'll prefer it too! Our API under test For the examples in this blog post, I’ll be using the Zippopotam.us REST API. In the next blog post, we’re going to explore creating data driven tests using pytest and requests. Tagged with pytest, automation, api, requests. Here is a basic pattern to achieve this: For this to work we need to add a command line option and It is invoked using the json() method, which will raise a ValueError if there is no response body at all, as well as when the response is not valid JSON. errors such as dependencies not being included into the executable can be detected early Fixtures are a powerful feature of PyTest. We can then use this fixture by passing client as an argument to any test. Async Tests¶. You can access the pytest config in pytest_generate_tests, so you just need to write a normal function which is passed information by pytest_generate_tests. If one step fails it makes no sense to execute further pip install -U pytest. You can use all types of fixtures including autouse fixtures which are the equivalent of xUnit’s setup/teardown every time you use pytest. Above is a very simple example using pytest-flask, we send a GET request to our app, which should return all cats in the database. The second example is a route that expects a POST request… while also allowing you to send test files to users so they can run them in their Then use pytestconfig fixture in a fixture of your own to grab the name. Module level fixtures don’t work if you just want to run the one function that doesn’t use the resource. node. How to configure the tools When we have decoded the response body into a JSON object, we can access elements in the body by referring to their name, in this case country. To use pytest-flask we need to create a fixture called app() which creates our Flask server. The easiest way to do this is using pip, the Python package manager: Don’t forget to create and activate a virtual environment if you prefer that setup. An example of a simple test: # content of test_sample.py def inc ( x ): return x + 1 def test_answer (): assert inc ( 3 ) == 5 Earlier we have seen Fixtures and Scope of fixtures, In this article, will focus more on using fixtures with conftest.py We can put fixtures into individual test files, if we want The ‘requests’ module is an amazing python module that allows for easily working with HTTP requests. We can do so by calling pytest and telling it where to look for test files. Please note that the mechanism for plugin discovery used by pytest nodeid and the current stage, which can be setup, call, Usually it is a bad idea to make application code fixture def fixt (request): marker = request. This plugin makes it simple to test general data, images, files, and numeric tables by saving expected data in a data directory (courtesy of pytest-datadir) that can be used to verify that future runs produce the same data.. See the docs for examples and API usage. If not distributing tests (for example passing `-n0` or not passing `-n` at all) also return 'master'. param ("2+4", 6, marks = pytest. My favorite documentation is objective-based: I’m trying to achieve X objective, here are some examples of how library Y can help. To extract and assert on the value of the place name for the first place in the list of places, for example, we can do something similar: As a final example, let’s check that the list of places returned by the API contains exactly one entry: This, too, is straightforward after we’ve converted the response body to JSON. Pytest allows us to set various attributes for the test methods using pytest markers, @pytest.mark . PYTEST_CURRENT_TEST will be set to: The contents of PYTEST_CURRENT_TEST is meant to be human readable and the actual format can’t find any third party plugins automatically. The len() method that is built into Python returns the length of a list, in this case the list of items that is the value of the places element in the JSON document returned by the API. Provide API URL; Add customized headers Standard headers like Content-Length are taken care of by requests module. How about checking the value of a response body element? To use a fixture within your test function, pass the fixture name as a parameter to make it available. That’s all there is to a first, and admittedly very basic, test against our API. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. pytest Sample Project Usage. Also take a look at the comprehensive documentation which contains many example snippets as well. 3. (setupttools entry points) doesn’t work with frozen executables so pytest mark. for pytest, but if you are using another tool to freeze executables For example, let’s check if the value of the response content type header correctly identifies that the response body is in JSON format: In the response object, the headers are available as a dictionary (a list of key-value pairs) headers, which makes extracting the value for a specific header a matter of supplying the right key (the header name) to obtain its value. use the pytest.fail marker to fail a test with a certain message. If you want to postprocess test reports and need access to the executing For example, when running a single test function named test_foo from foo_module.py, provide the cmdopt through a fixture function: Let’s run this without supplying our new option: And now with supplying a command line option: You can see that the command line option arrived in our test. DEV is a community of 529,943 amazing developers We're a place where coders share, stay up-to-date and grow their careers. this to make sure unexpected exception types aren’t hidden: This will avoid hiding the exception traceback on unrelated exceptions (i.e. Using the examples for yourself the command line arguments before they get processed: If you have the xdist plugin installed It’s not clear which of 7 ways to achieve my objective is best. your test runner and run your tests using the frozen application. environment you can implement a hook that gets called when the test # content of test_pytest_param_example.py import pytest @pytest. directory with the above conftest.py: Here is a conftest.py file adding a --runslow command You may consider config.getoption('verbose') in order to success_request and bad_request: custom pytest marks. Usage. Then we can send various http requests using client.. To run the sample, follow the steps below: create the python virtual environment:python3 -m venv env activate the virtual environment:env\Scripts\activate install the dependencies:pip install -r requirements.txt run the unit test:pytest -v See cmds.txt for more details. I prefer pytest, but requests works equally well with other Python unit testing frameworks. Skip to content. Here is an example for making a db fixture available in a directory: and then a test module in that directory: and then a module in a sister directory which will not see One of the topics that was covered in this course is writing tests for RESTful APIs using the Python requests library and the pytest unit testing framework. Getting started It looks like we’re good to go with this one. like pytest-timeout they must be imported explicitly and passed on to pytest.main. However, when using pytest, there’s an easy way to cause a swirling vortex of apocalyptic destruction called “ModuleNotFoundError Typically, we’ll be interested in things other than the response HTTP status code, too. Then, all we need to do to get started is to create a new Python file and import the requests library using. Let’s run our test with some condition: As a result we have: – Collected test with one of bad_request marks – Ignore test without pytest.param object, because that don’t have marks parameters – Show test with custom ID in console. absolutely must find out if your application code is tests in a class. by placing fixture functions in a conftest.py file in that directory setup/teardown functions, especially if they are far away from the actual tests. mark. can be changed between releases (even bug fixes) so it shouldn’t be relied on for scripting Let’s first check that the response body element country (see the sample JSON response above) is equal to United States: The requests library comes with a built-in JSON decoder, which we can use to extract the response body from the response object and turn it into a proper JSON object. an incremental marker which is to be used on classes: These two hook implementations work together to abort incremental-marked Teaching test automation to companies worldwide. We can then use this fixture by passing client as an argument to any test. basic), pytest. Using the sample project referenced at the end of this blog post, and assuming we’re in the project root folder, calling. It can be tedious to type the same series of command line options every time you use pytest. This first blog post is all about getting started and writing our first tests against a sample REST API. See you next time! import pytest @pytest. Extending our test suite I then presented class level fixtures as a way to solve the separation problem. Flask Pytest routing and requests example. Log in Create account DEV Community. Everything in requests eventually goes through an adapter to do the transport work. As you can see, the Python script also just follows the steps as simple as Postman. mark. above will show verbose output because -v overwrites -q. Example Handling a simple GET request Through addopts you can statically add command line Here we will apply different marker names to test methods and run specific tests based on marker names. or teardown. When you’re testing functions that process data or perform generic transformations, you’ll find yourself writing many similar tests. command line options outside of the test and rather pass in different or case you want to query/look at it during your post processing. The second example is a route that expects a POST request. By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to start writing test cases using pytest. To use pytest-flask we need to create a fixture called app() which creates our Flask server. xfail], id = "basic_6*9"),],) def test_eval (test_input, expected): assert eval … You can for example use case we just write some information out to a failures file: you will have a “failures” file which contains the failing test ids: If you want to make test result reports available in fixture finalizers We then need to create a new project in our IDE (I use PyCharm, but any decent IDE works) and install the requests library. completes the basic pattern. Pytest is a testing framework based on python. progress output, you can write it into a configuration file: Alternatively, you can set a PYTEST_ADDOPTS environment variable to add command detailed info on skipped and xfailed tests, as well as have terser “dot” Mocking your Pytest test with fixture To use markers in the test file, we need to import pytest on the test files. param ("6*9", 42, marks = [pytest. while the one test in the sister-directory b doesn’t see it. it (unless you use “autouse” fixture which are always executed ahead of the first test fixt_data (42) def test_fixt (fixt): assert fixt == 42 Contact us if you need more examples or have questions. pytest_httpserver. For example, if you always want to see detailed info on skipped and xfailed tests, as well as have terser “dot” progress output, you can write it into a configuration file: # content of pytest.ini [pytest] addopts = -ra -q I.What is requests Requests is a library for making HTTP requests in Python. Simple sample application demonstrating how to use Pytest with Flask for testing routing and requests. from the root of the python-requests project to install the required libraries, you should be able to run the tests for yourself. of tracebacks: the checkconfig function will not be shown In order to explain the importance of pytest fixtures, I’ll take a simple example where setup() and teardown() functions of one test (test_1) are called even when another test (test_2) is executed. in order to distribute it to your end-users, it is a good idea to also package Running in an empty The pytest framework makes it easy to write small tests, yet scales to support complex functional testing for applications and libraries. line options while the environment is in use: Here’s how the command-line is built in the presence of addopts or the environment variable: So if the user executes in the command-line: Note that as usual for other command-line applications, in case of conflicting options the last one wins, so the example If you download the project and (given you have installed Python properly) run. mark. machines, which can be useful to obtain more information about a hard to reproduce bug. Our API under test For the examples in this blog post, I’ll be using the Zippopotam.us REST API. Example of a Pytest Fixture Use-Case. by process monitoring utilities or libraries like psutil to discover which import requests. ; Add body Just create a dictionary variable for your request body, and convert it to json string format using json.dumps() function. Sample programs. Here is a simple conftest.py file which introduces The other doesn’t. One uses a resource. param ("1+7", 8, marks = pytest. We’ll also need a unit testing framework to provide us with a test runner, an assertion library and some basic reporting functionality. Above is a very simple example using pytest-flask, we send a GET request to our app, which should return all cats in the database. This I prefer to do this from the command line, because that’s also how we will run the tests once they’re part of an automated build pipeline. you will now always perform test runs using a number or automation. Then, all we need to do to get started is to create a new Python file and import the requests library using, Our API under test set the __tracebackhide__ option somewhere in the helper function. You can also dynamically modify Fixtures help us to setup some pre-conditions like setup a database connection / get test data from files etc that should run before any tests are executed. For the examples in this blog post, I’ll be using the Zippopotam.us REST API. information. mark. have a single executable, which is usually more convenient. basic, pytest. For example: $ pip install requests; You should now be able to see both pytest and the package. This is particularly a problem if the problem happens only sporadically, the famous “flaky” kind of tests. The Pytest and Mock documentations include many examples, but the examples are not opinionated. It looks like our test is passing. You have already seen how to test your FastAPI applications using the provided TestClient, but with it, you can't test or run any other async function in your (synchronous) pytest functions.. It is mainly used to write API test cases. steps as they are all expected to fail anyway and their tracebacks Here is a test module example: We’ll see that test_deletion was not executed because test_modification The example includes a basic "hello world" route to demonstrate a GET request. output. I prefer pytest, but requests works equally well with other Python unit testing frameworks. to obtain the full list of internal pytest modules. your frozen program work as the pytest runner by some clever tests or test classes rather than relying on implicitly executing Point pytest with your stubs and service: import pytest from stub.test_pb2 import EchoRequest @pytest.fixture (scope = 'module') def grpc_add_to_server (): from stub.test_pb2_grpc import add_EchoServiceServicer_to_server return add_EchoServiceServicer_to_server concept. Prerequisites . Let’s make an artificial test suite: Now we can profile which test functions execute the slowest: Sometimes you may have a testing situation which consists of a series Audience. test got stuck if necessary: During the test session pytest will set PYTEST_CURRENT_TEST to the current test the db fixture: The two test modules in the a directory see the same db fixture instance install via: pip install pytest-cache after which other plugins can access a new config.cache object which helps sharing values between py.test invocations.. The example below needs to execute the fixture session_data only once ... the `pytest` `request` or `session` object """ def get_xdist_worker_id (request_or_session)-> str: """Return the id of the current worker ('gw0', 'gw1', etc) or 'master' if running on the 'master' node. Later in this tutorial, you’ll see an example of how pytest marks work and learn how to make use of them in a large test suite. of subprocesses close to your CPU. pytest is an outstanding tool for testing Python applications. Flask Pytest routing and requests example Simple sample application demonstrating how to use Pytest with Flask for testing routing and requests. Point pytest with your stubs and service: import pytest from stub.test_pb2 import EchoRequest @pytest.fixture (scope = 'module') def grpc_add_to_server (): from stub.test_pb2_grpc import add_EchoServiceServicer_to_server return add_EchoServiceServicer_to_server of test steps. January 7, 2014 By Brian 11 Comments. This tutorial is designed to benefit IT professionals and students who want to take a step further in their QA Automation career by adding a strong testing framework to their skillset. It is reported as an “expected failure”. Create new account Log in. PyInstaller It can be tedious to type the same series of command line options pytest sets the PYTEST_CURRENT_TEST environment variable when running tests, which can be inspected “report” object is about to be created. Fixtures help us to setup some pre-conditions like setup a database connection / get test data from files etc that should run before any tests are executed. Monkeypatching with pytest (Example #2) The second example illustrates how to use monkeypatching with pytest when working with an external module, which happens to be the ‘requests‘ module in this case. line option to control skipping of pytest.mark.slow marked tests: We can now write a test module like this: and when running it will see a skipped “slow” test: Or run it including the slow marked test: If you have a test helper function called from a test you can Created using, _______________________________ test_answer ________________________________, =========================== test session starts ============================, ========================== no tests ran in 0.12s ===========================, # --runslow given in cli: do not skip slow tests, ______________________________ test_something ______________________________, # store history of failures per test class name and per index in parametrize (if parametrize used), # retrieve the index of the test (if parametrize is used in combination with incremental), # store in _test_failed_incremental the original name of the failed test, # check if a previous test has failed for this class, # retrieve the name of the first test function to fail for this class name and index, # if name found, test has failed for the combination of class name & test name, ____________________ TestUserHandling.test_modification ____________________, _______________________ ERROR at setup of test_root ________________________, _________________________________ test_a1 __________________________________, E AssertionError: , _________________________________ test_a2 __________________________________, # execute all other hooks to obtain the report object, # we only look at actual failing test calls, not setup/teardown, # let's also access a fixture for the fun of it, ________________________________ test_fail1 ________________________________, ________________________________ test_fail2 ________________________________, # set a report attribute for each phase of a call, which can, # request.node is an "item" because we use the default, ____________________ ERROR at setup of test_setup_fails ____________________, _____________________________ test_call_fails ______________________________, # normal application execution: at this point argv can be parsed, # by your argument-parsing library of choice as usual, How to change command line options defaults, Pass different values to a test function, depending on command line options, Control skipping of tests according to command line option, Writing well integrated assertion helpers, Detect if running from within a pytest run, Package/Directory-level fixtures (setups), Making test result information available in fixtures, Demo of Python failure reports with pytest. executing). requests-mock creates a custom adapter that allows you to predefine responses when certain URIs are called. Various concepts and features of pytest. HTTP server for pytest. In the first line of the test, we call the get() method in the requests library to perform an HTTP GET call to the specified endpoint, and we store the entire response in a variable called response. Then, all we need to do to get started is to create a new Python file and import the requests library using. Here we write out all failing Suppose we want to write a test that depends on a command line option. This way packaging Features. For basic examples, see. pip install -U pytest. argument handling during program startup. This allows you to execute tests using the frozen such as cx_freeze or py2exe, you can use pytest.freeze_includes() But if you options for your project. To get started, first we need a recent installation of the Python interpreter, which can be downloaded here. In this short series of blog posts, I want to explore the Python requests library and how it can be used for writing tests for RESTful APIs. For example, a GET request to http://api.zippopotam.us/us/90210. It’s however recommended to have explicit fixture references in your We then extract the status_code property from the response object and write an assertion, using the pytest assert keyword, that checks that the status code is equal to 200, as expected. test_get_locations_for_us_90210_check_status_code_equals_200, test_get_locations_for_us_90210_check_content_type_equals_json, test_get_locations_for_us_90210_check_country_equals_united_states, test_get_locations_for_us_90210_check_city_equals_beverly_hills, test_get_locations_for_us_90210_check_one_place_is_returned. The tests for yourself the code being tested spot for you and your coworkers to find share. In this blog post, I ’ ll be interested in things than. ) also return 'master ' amazing Python module that allows for easily working with http requests Python! That allows you to have a single executable, which can be tedious to type the series. Post can be downloaded here one function that doesn ’ t work if you set the option. The response http status code, too id = `` basic_2+4 '' ), on! Marks = pytest have a file test_sample1.py but I find the need create. Often rather wants to process command line options every time you use pytest with for... Module level fixtures don ’ t work if you just need to do get! Then assert on its value using a pytest assertion and the expected of... Our API under test for the examples in this blog post is all about getting started writing. Marker names is to create a new Python file and import the requests library.! To achieve my objective is best when you 're querying your database asynchronously but I the... An easy way to cause a swirling vortex of apocalyptic destruction called “ ModuleNotFoundError pytest querying your database.. Python-Requests project to install the required libraries, you ’ ll be in! Might not make such a huge difference in the test and see what happens simply by specifying it a. A way to cause a swirling vortex of apocalyptic destruction called “ ModuleNotFoundError.! They may differ only in the input or output of the test file, ’... Source code to be tested: # content of test_pytest_param_example.py import pytest on often. Overhead might not make such a huge difference in the test and rather pass different... Your test function, pass the fixture name as a parameter against a sample REST.! Apocalyptic destruction called “ ModuleNotFoundError pytest routing and requests new option ( growing list! Modulenotfounderror pytest to install the required libraries, you should be able to run the one function doesn... If the problem happens only sporadically, the famous “flaky” kind of tests like they! €œFlaky” kind of tests looks like we ’ ll be interested in things other than the response status. Particularly a problem where: Two tests exist in a test that depends on a command line options outside the., stay up-to-date and grow their careers of application/json show up in input! To http: //api.zippopotam.us/us/90210 expects a post request… i.what is requests requests is a private secure. Called test_sample.py: fixtures are a powerful feature of pytest looks like we ’ find. Requests ’ module is an amazing Python module that allows you to have a test_sample1.py... Is all about getting started to get the adapter used taken care of requests. Delivered my first ever three day ‘ Python for testers ’ training course of registering and loading fixtures. You need more examples or have questions, a get request inside the study_pytest! To run the tests for yourself the code examples I have used in this blog post be. Ever three day ‘ Python for testers ’ training course responses when certain URIs are called do with... Course also define a new Python file and import the requests library using of by module. The comprehensive documentation which contains many example snippets as well i.what is requests requests is a,! Study_Pytest, we ’ re good to go pytest requests example this one take a look at an of. To write a normal function which is usually more convenient cause a swirling vortex of apocalyptic pytest requests example called ModuleNotFoundError! Pytest such that it is usable simply by specifying it as a parameter to make application code differently... Via: pip install pytest-cache after which other plugins can access a new Python file and the! Fixtures as a way to cause a swirling vortex of apocalyptic destruction called “ ModuleNotFoundError pytest code to tested! Want to run the one function that doesn ’ t use the pytest_addoption hook function in conftest.py define. We can then use this fixture by passing client as an argument to any test a way to the! Somewhere in the next blog post can be tedious to type the series... Working with http requests using client there are then a number of provided! Takes a country code and a zip code all about getting started writing... When using pytest admittedly very basic, id = `` basic_2+4 '' ),.., automation, API, requests, so you just need to create a new option not opinionated example. For easily working with http requests the ‘ requests ’ module is an amazing Python that! 'Re a place where coders share, stay up-to-date and grow their careers run the for. Fixture by passing client as an argument to any test markers in the execution one often rather wants to command... The test file functions that process data or perform generic transformations, you should be able to start test! Happens only sporadically, the famous “flaky” kind of tests fixtures are a powerful of... Our Flask server ever three day ‘ Python for testers ’ training course 'master ' methods provided get. On a command line options for your project within your test function, pass the fixture name a... Works, but requests works equally well with other Python unit testing frameworks have... Which of 7 ways to achieve my objective is best example passing -n! Function in conftest.py to define a new Python file and import the requests library using `` ''! To run the one function that doesn ’ t work if you download the project and ( you! Args [ 0 ] # do something with the data return data @ pytest test methods run! 'Master ' responses when certain URIs are called method of registering and loading custom fixtures such huge... You download the project and ( given you have installed Python properly run! Tests against a sample REST API and libraries can do so by calling pytest and telling it to! Ways to achieve my objective is best = [ pytest pytest-flask we need to create fixture. Exist in a different way, arguably, but perhaps you 'll prefer it too here we will different! Overhead might not make such a huge difference in the traceback if you set the option... It is mainly used to write small tests, yet scales to support complex functional testing for and! For testing routing and requests information by pytest_generate_tests the project and ( given have. The python-requests project to install the required libraries, you ’ ll be using the Zippopotam.us API... Of 7 ways to achieve my objective is best that allows for easily working with requests! Multiple files for testers ’ training course our first tests against a sample REST.! Ve delivered my first ever three day ‘ Python for testers ’ training course, all we need import. Expected value of a response body element which other plugins can access the pytest makes... Works, but requests works equally well with other Python unit testing frameworks want to API. S an easy way to solve the separation problem way to cause a swirling vortex apocalyptic.: > > > import requests > > import requests_mock > > > session = requests can use. Problem where: Two tests exist in a test module example: We’ll see that pytest requests example was not executed test_modification... Is an outstanding tool for testing routing and requests difference in the helper function, too Flask for testing and. Sample application demonstrating how to configure the pytest requests example to find the need to create a Python! Own to grab the name not executed because test_modification failed was not executed because test_modification failed could! Only in the next blog post, I presented a problem if the problem happens only sporadically, famous!, automation, API, requests generic transformations, you should be able to use markers the... Multiple tests from a test import pytest on the test support function will not show up the. Import requests_mock > > > import requests_mock > > import requests > > import >. Python file and import the requests library using in your tests could be useful for. The examples in this blog post is all about getting started to get started is create... Executed because test_modification failed of tests parameter to make application code behave if... = pytest problem if the problem happens only sporadically, the Python,! We ’ ll be interested in things other than the response http status code, too for your.! In this blog post, I ’ ll find yourself writing many similar tests your to! Coworkers to find and share information method of registering and loading custom fixtures helps sharing between! Tool for testing routing and requests code and a zip code and returns location data associated with country... Function in conftest.py to define a db fixture in a different way,,. Tutorial, you ’ re testing functions that process data or perform generic,... Unique temporary directory for functional tests ; Continue reading ; Usage and Invocations return data @ pytest one that! Be able to start writing test cases using pytest Python interpreter, which can be tedious to the! The resource but requests works equally well with other Python unit testing frameworks ; add headers. Test for the examples for yourself the code examples I have used in this blog post, I ve... Can then use this fixture by passing client as an argument to any....

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