A proud and self-confident message that runs counter to all that we know from Christian and later Jewish sources. In the Talmud very little is known about an early first century CE rabbi called Yeshu Ben Pandera whose disciple Jacob of Kefar Soma/Sama or Sakanin, though described as a "Min" (i.e. Celsus in his discourse The True Word gives the name as Panthera in Greek. In Shabbat 12:4 III he is mentioned as having learnt by cutting marks in his flesh. the archetypal jewish hero was joshua (the successor of moses) otherwise known as yeshua ben nun (‘jesus of the fish’). [111], Typically both Jerusalem and Babylonian Talmuds use the generic minim for heretics. (The Talmud) by Dennis McKinsey, Did Jesus Live 100 B.C.? According to them the account also reveals that there was greater contact between Christians and Jews in the 2nd century than commonly believed. [114] The work is an early account of Jesus, based on contemporary Jewish views, in which Jesus is described as being the son of Joseph, the son of Pandera (see a translation of the Yemenite text: Episode of Jesus, or what is also known as Toledot Yeshu). Ehrman clarifies that the name "Son of Panthera" (Roman who allegedly was the seducer of Mary) was a tradition, as scholars have long recognized, that represented an attack on the Christian view, that he was the son of a virgin. He said to him: we will speak to you in the name of Jesus son of Pandera", Jerusalem Shabboth 14:4/13 "Jacob ... came in the name of Jesus Pandera to heal him", Qohelet Rabbah 1:8(3) "He told me a word in the name of Jesus son of Pandera", Babylonian Abodah Zarah 17a "One of the disciples of Jesus the Nazarene found me", Babylonian Abodah Zarah 17a "Thus I was taught by Jesus the Nazarene", See also Talmud passage Erubin 21b (Soncino edition): “R. The following are among those considered the most controversial, contested, and possibly the most notable. Klausner distinguishes between core material in the accounts which he argues are not about Jesus and the references to "Yeshu" which he sees as additions spuriously associating the accounts with Jesus. In other words, rabbis are encouraged to disagree and argue with one another, but these activities must be carefully contained, or else they could lead to a schism. Recent scholars in the same vein include Peter Schäfer,[22] Steven Bayme, and Dr. David C. No one comes forth and in the end he is stoned and hanged on the eve of Passover. In his view the tosefta account reveals that at least some Jews believed Christians were true healers, but that the rabbis saw this belief as a major threat. We are quite bemused with the efforts of writers such as these to prove the existence of the world's most elusive man. [27] Friedrich August Nitzsch (1840) suggested that the name may refer to a panther being a lustful animal and thus have the meaning of "whore", additionally being a pun on parthenos meaning virgin. [32] He asserts that the references in the Babylonian Talmud were "polemical counter-narratives that parody the New Testament stories, most notably the story of Jesus' birth and death"[33] and that the rabbinical authors were familiar with the Gospels (particularly the Gospel of John) in their form as the Diatessaron and the Peshitta, the New Testament of the Syrian Church. Most remarkably, they counter the New Testament Passion story with its message of the Jews' guilt and shame as Christ killers. Tosephta’s version In Greek, the term for virgin is parthenos, which is similar to panthera, implying that "son of panthera" is a pun on "son of a virgin". View the profiles of people named Yeshúa Ben Pandira. Aside from mentions of the five disciples of "Yeshu ha Notzri," the plural Notzrim, "Christians," are only clearly mentioned once in the Babylonian Talmud, (where it is amended to Netzarim, people of the watch) in B.Ta'anit 27b with a late parallel in Masekhet Soferim 17:4. Every day my ashes are collected and sentence is passed on me and I am burnt and my ashes are scattered over the seven seas. In Israeli Hebrew Yeshu is used for Jesus of Nazareth per Aaron Abraham Kabak's novel "On the narrow path" Ba-Mishcol Ha-Tsar (1937). … God does not have a Son…. In contrast to this, other authors, e.g. With Jesus the Nazarene it was different. The texts include several spellings for the father's name (Pandera, Panthera, Pandira, Pantiri, or Pantera) and some scholars conclude that these are all references to the same individual,[105] but other scholars suggest that they may be unrelated references. With Jesus the Nazarene it was different. Some editions of the Talmud are missing some of the references, which were removed either by Christian censors starting in the 13th century,[18] or by Jews themselves due to fear of reprisals, or some were possibly lost by negligence or accident. In the modern era there has been a variance of views among scholars of the possible references to Jesus in the Talmud, depending partly on presuppositions as to the extent to which the ancient rabbis were preoccupied with Jesus and Christianity. [14] "Minimalists" include Jacob Z. Lauterbach (1951) ("who recognize[d] only relatively few passages that actually have Jesus in mind"),[13] while "maximalists" include Herford (1903), (who concluded that most of the references related to Jesus, but were non-historical oral traditions which circulated among Jews),[15][16] and Schäfer (2007) (who concluded that the passages were parodies of parallel stories about Jesus in the New Testament incorporated into the Talmud in the 3rd and 4th centuries that illustrate the inter-sect rivalry between Judaism and nascent Christianity[17][page needed]). It is not to be confused with, This article is about an individual or individuals found in Jewish literature. There are still noticeable challenges to the identification of Yeshu as Jesus, as elsewhere in the Talmud his stepfather, Pappos ben Yehuda, is mentioned as being martyred with Rabbi Akiva[6] and is himself mentioned as being among the Pharisees returning to Israel following their persecution by John Hyrcanus,[5] which would place Yeshu's lifetime anywhere between 130 and 70 years before the birth of Jesus. Tiberius Julius Abdes Pantera was a Roman soldier whose tombstone was found in Bingerbrück, Germany, in 1859. [41][42][43], During these disputations the representatives of the Jewish communities offered various defences to the charges of the Christian disputants. The Platonistic philosopher Celsus, writing circa 150 to 200 CE, wrote a narrative describing a Jew who discounts the story of the Virgin Birth of Jesus. [citation needed], Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz translates "Yeshu" as "Jesus" in his translation of the Talmud. Pappos and Miriam might have been introduced simply as a result of their being remembered in connection with a theme of a woman having gone astray. This is refuted by the claim that it is both, his mother's husband was Stada but her lover was Pandera. [95] His teacher said "Here is a nice inn", to which he replied "Her eyes are crooked", to which his teacher responded "Evil one! What then, he said, about joining them? [117] Scholars have remarked on the parallels (adultery, father's name "Panthera", return from Egypt, magical powers) between Celsus' account and the Talmudic narratives. But since they did not find anything in his defense they hanged him on (Sabbath eve and) the eve of Passover. In Gittin 56b–57a a story is recorded in which Onkelos, a nephew of the Roman emperor Titus who destroyed the Second Temple, intent on converting to Judaism, summons up the spirits of Yeshu and others to help make up his mind. [53], Starting in the 13th century, manuscripts of the Talmud were sometimes altered in response to the criticisms made during the disputations, and in response to orders from the Christian church. (Herford again takes liberty and adds "in the name of Jeshu Pandera" to his translation of the Talmud passages despite these words not being in the original text. [88] However, the references to Mary are not specific, and some assert that they do not refer to Jesus' mother, or perhaps refer to Mary Magdalen. This quote is seen by some as an explanation in general for the designation Yeshu. Pandera was meant to be the name of Mary’s lover, a carnal dig at the Virgin Birth. His mother's name was Miriam, 'the hairdresser'; … her lover's name was Pandira. Letters spelling out the term were found on the first century CE ossuary of a certain Yeshua bar Yehoseph, published by E.L. Sukenik in 1931. Sanhedrin 107b uses it for a Hasmonean era individual who in an earlier account (Jerusalem Talmud Chagigah 2:2) is anonymous. Like the rabbis, early Christians claimed to be working within Biblical traditions to provide new interpretations of Jewish laws and values. Whoever knows anything in defense may come and state it.' But it also reflects and speaks to an anxiety fundamental to Rabbinic Judaism. "[118][119], Possible references to Jesus in the Talmud, For the related article discussing the Hebrew name Yeshu as found in Talmud and other Jewish literature, see, In the context of Christian-Judaic polemics, Text-criticism, versions, and alterations, As a sinful student who practiced magic and turned to idolatry, Son of Pantera / Pandera in a healing context, Son of Pantiri / Pandera in a teaching context, L. Patterson, "Origin of the Name Panthera", JTS 19 (1917–18), p. 79–80, cited in Meier, p. 107 n. 48, Papers presented at the Thirteenth International Conference on Patristic Studies p398 Maurice Wiles, Edward Yarnold, P. M. Parvis - 1997 "These scholars represent a school of thought, which can be described as minimalist, as it argues that there was minimal ... including Horbury, who accepts some aspects of the minimalist argument and does not dismiss Harnack outright. They replied: With boiling hot excrement, since a Master has said: Whoever mocks at the words of the Sages is punished with boiling hot excrement. Prior to the destruction of the Temple in 70, Jews were divided into different sects, each promoting different interpretations of the law. [63][64][65][66], The master said: Jesus the Nazarene practiced magic and deceived and led Israel astray. 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