Broadleaf weeds were differentially controlled by the herbicides tested. III. For pasture: To prevent oxalate toxicity, livestock should not graze on only kochia for more than 90 to 120 days. Because kochia plants are hairy, the cured forage has a gray color which may resemble mold or spoilage. These herbicides control grasses and many small-seeded broadleaf weeds like lambsquarter and kochia. All herbicides effectively controlled downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.). document.write ("Last updated: " + (lastMod) + " by aw") tall and before it has produced seed. Habitat. Follow up with in-crop and post-harvest herbicides that also control kochia. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. Cambridge Journals publishes over 250 peer-reviewed academic journals across a wide range of subject areas, in print and online. Kochia can be used in revegetation programs for erosion control. New Mexico State University, Plains Branch Station, Clovis, NM. Cattle grazing on kochia should be fed supplemental phosphorus. Apply preplant incorporated to alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil and clover (red, alsike and ladino). seeding depth results in best emergence. Most kochia stands need thinning to prevent the crop from crowding itself out, particularly if a volunteer crop emerges the second year. A: Active ingredient instead of commercial products are provided here. All Rights Reserved. It publishes over 2,500 books a year for distribution in more than 200 countries. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effects of saline water irrigation and soil salinity on the growth of kochia (Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Kessler, Karl. -->. A new herbicide option for pre-emergent control is now available for use. In the Southwest, three or four cuttings are possible in a growing season if live branches are left on the stubble each time. If too much nitrogen is applied at once, however, toxic levels of nitrate may accumulate in the plants. It is best to plant kochia on a relatively weed-free seedbed with no quackgrass or other grassy weed history. Ascard (1994) developed dose-response relationships between applied energy and weed response. Balan preplant incorporated gives good control of annual grasses and fair to good control of pigweed and kochia. Because kochia is not a legume, nitrogen needs to be applied in proportion to the amount removed. Kochia does not compete well with grasses. The nutritional value, when immature, is similar to that of alfalfa (Stubbendieck et al., 2003). Small, green flowers and seeds are produced in narrow heads at the leaf axils. You are responsible for using pesticides according to the manufacturer's current label directions. Lush green alfalfa. Figure 1. The many alternate leaves are hairy, 1 to 2 in. Kochia is relatively unharmed by grasshoppers. Apply 50 to 100 lb/acre prior to planting, and topdress the remainder later in the season based on anticipated yield. Summary. As a forage crop its feed value is slightly lower than that of alfalfa. R. Currie and P. Geier. Flixweed (Descurainia sophia), an annual mustard, infestation in alfalfa. Grazed plants appear to produce more seed than the ungrazed ones, providing there is enough plant remaining at normal seeding time to provide seed shoots. Kochia’s seeds have short lives in the soil, so control can be achieved in a single year, either through control of germinated seeds or through seed degradation. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. Digestibility of Kochia Hay Compared with Alfalfa Hay 1 L. B. SHERROD Texas Tech University Center, Pantex 79069 Abstract Digestibility studies with sheep com- pared the digestibility and nitrogen bal- ance with all roughage rations contain- ing ground koehia hay at 100, 75, 50, 25, and 0~ replacing equal weights of ground alfalfa hay. Kochia produces hay yields of 1 to 4 ton/acre (dry matter) and seed yields of 1,500 to 2,000 lb/acre. Fall-applied herbicides were evaluated in field studies conducted in 1978 through 1980 in western Nebraska for selective weed control in nonirrigated, established alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. 'Ranger'). Though there is wide genetic variability in wild kochia, no improved varieties have been developed. It can be planted when soil temperatures are as low as 50°F. Kochia is grown as a forage crop for sheep and cattle and as an ornamental. Sharpen (saflufenacil) alone or with Prowl H. 2. New Mexico State University Agricultural Experiment Station. It has been shown that kochia will germinate when minimum soil temperatures reach 39° F and can survive at temperatures well below freezing. Doll1, G.L. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. Feb. 1982. Fuehring, H.D. Rates of these herbicides at 0.3, 0.4, and 0.4 kg/ha, respectively, controlled 69% or less of the Russian thistle. In the fall, the plants often break away from the roots and tumble over the ground, scattering the seeds. deep or deeper. This can lead to considerable yield losses, either from delayed grain harvest due to weed moisture content in the field, or from increased grain moisture levels due to weed debris mixed with grain after harvest. tall. With severe infestations and poor crop competition, kochia can create up to 100 percent crop loss. D.J. Effertz, Nita. Cambridge University Press ( is the publishing division of the University of Cambridge, one of the world’s leading research institutions and winner of 81 Nobel Prizes. Worf1, E.E. This will be a major limitation to use in the Upper Midwest. Farm Journal/Beef Extra. Good control of … When cut at the recommended stage, kochia hay contains up to 60% leaves and has good aroma. Alfalfa has a strong tap root. 3. Undersander1, B.R. Fuehring, H.D. Do not apply less than 50 days prior to alfalfa harvest. Kochia can be sown by airplane on large areas that need revegetation, such as areas that have been devastated by fire. The best approach to kochia control in sunflower is to start with an early preplant burndown treatment in early April to control the early emerged plants. Putting the Bite on Kochia. Spray it right – When spraying for kochia, be sure your water quality is good, by checking that the pH is in line so glyphosate and other herbicides added will work effectively. The seed needs no treatment prior to planting. By the second cutting of alfalfa,kochia control was slightly less when lower rates of metribuzin and terbacil were Rotational grazing of other crops will prevent oxalate poisoning. Because of kochia's low water requirements and resistance to diseases and insects, interest in it as a forage crop has increased in the last decade. Emergence is poor when seed is planted 3/4 in. Figure 1. Kochia is a bushy annual, growing to 1.5 m tall and wide in good conditions. ... the plant is often called "poor man's alfalfa." Kochia is well adapted to alkaline soils, but it is not known how well it does on acid soils. All herbicide treatments increased forage production and protein content over that produced in the untreated check. kg/ha, respectively, gave excellent control of all weeds present in the study. This amounts to 40 to 60 lb N/ton of hay removed, or 100 to 250 lb N/acre. Weed Control in Alfalfa. For hay or silage: Kochia should be cut for hay or silage when it is 18 to 26 in. •Control weeds that emerge in fall or late winter before alfalfa greens up in the spring •Control weeds that emerge after cutting or in areas where the alfalfa stand is thin How to Grow Kochia as a Forage Crop. Alfalfa seed is an important niche crop on irrigated land in Southern Alberta, but presents a number of challenges, one of which is the control of kochia (Kochia scoparia). Kochia Has Possibilities as Future Livestock Feed. Oxalate toxicity, which causes rough hair, humpback, jaundice, photosensitization and a stiff gait in livestock, is another potential problem for cattle that graze only on kochia for periods of 90 to 120 days. Follow directions exactly to protect people and the environment from pesticide exposure. Alfalfa has shown good establishment in seed corn, many years as an interseeded cover crop. The stems and leaves are generally green, but change to yellow, red and brown as the plant ages and dies. . For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions 2. Farmers in dry areas, including the Southwest, have grown kochia as a drought-resistant forage crop on lands where other crops are difficult to grow -- hence the nickname "poor man's alfalfa." Russian Thistles and Kochia for Forage. Previous work has shown that Authority® (sulfentrazone) and Valtera™ (flumioxazin), two group ð pre-emergence herbicides, are well tolerated by established seed alfalfa. It provides a quick groundcover to protect topsoil and provide a food source for wildlife until native grasses take over. Agricultural Information, New Mexico State University. Several years of alfalfa growth can help to reduce soil compaction. typically found in alfalfa fields are divided into three ma-jor classes: broadleaf weeds, grasses, and sedges. Foster, Charlotte.