Subsequently, historians and archaeologists embarked on the arduous task of translating the script. At the head of the stone slab is Hammurabi receiving the law from Shamash,[7] and in the preface, he states, "Anu and Bel called by name me, Hammurabi, the exalted prince, who feared God, to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers; so that the strong should not harm the weak; so that I should rule over the black-headed people like Shamash, and enlighten the land, to further the well-being of mankind. The code is inscribed in the Akkadian language using cuneiform script. Interesting Facts about the Code of Hammurabi. Hammurabi’s name translates into “great family” in the Akkadian language. He expanded Babylon and united the southern Mesopotamia. Updated April 21, 2020. The language the Babylonians spoke was Akkadian. During his time as king he oversaw a great expansion of his kingdom from a city-state to an empire. How do we know about the Code of Hammurabi? It has been stated that he was a very just ruler. However, the slave has many very severe punishments for being a bad servant while their owners only get punished for hurting other slave owners. The Babylonian society had three main classes – the upper class, non-slaves and slaves. (Revue historique. Law #3. Eye for an Eye. The Amorites are believed to have hailed from western part of present-day Syria. It greatly influenced a total dependence on the power of their one ruler, and it was a conscious effort to exalt the king as the source of earthly powers. did the law code apply equally to all. Over the years, however, a few clay pots and slabs from Hammurabi’s era have been discovered in the Persian region. [21], While the Code of Hammurabi was trying to achieve equality, biases still existed against those categorized in the lower end of the social spectrum and some of the punishments and justice could be gruesome. The common belief is that the code contained 282 laws in total. Paris, 1907. View Hammurabis_Code_activity_1.pptx from LOTE 101 at Travis H S. Hammurabi’s Code Background • Why is Hammurabi’s code useful to historians? If a person is proven to have stolen an ox, then he/she is slapped with a punishment of 30 times the value of the stolen ox. All Rights Reserved. If a son strikes his father, his hands shall be hewn off. CODE OF LAWS 1. One of the best known laws from Hammurabi's code was: Ex. The king put together a written set of legal code that contained 282 rules. Its purpose is to stimulate student thinking about the reasons behind Hammurabi's Code. The codes encompassed issues from a wide range of areas in the society, from family, business, and administrative law. 8. v. 94, pp. All the codes were proclaimed using the if-then format. King Hammurabi ruled Babylon, located along the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers, from 1792–1750 BCE. Ever since the appearance, it was referred to as the Hammurabi’s Code. Rwandan Genocide – Summary, Death Toll, & Facts, Suez Canal – History, Construction, Significance, Map, Crisis, & Facts, Steve Biko: 6 Memorable Achievements of the South African anti-Apartheid Activist, Egyptian Goddess Seshat: Origins, Family, Symbols, & Worship. Hammurabi also established a set of laws that is today called the Code of Hammurabi. led directly to the development of democracy. The codes have served as … The Code of Hammurabi was mostly based off an earlier set of Sumerian laws. It is for this reason he is considered the foremost lawgiver of the ancient world. Code of Hammurabi. Hammurabi’s Codes were a comprehensive set of 282 legal codes introduced by an 18th century BCE Babylonian king Hammurabi (reign – 1792 to 1750 BCE) in order to regulate trade, business transactions, as well as other social relationships in the ancient city-state of Babylon. Ancient scribes were responsible for. It is one of the oldest recorded codes of laws in the world. 2. 2050 BC), the Codex of Eshnunna (ca. due to medical malpractice) a rich member from the upper class, then the said doctor would have his have his hands severed off. He then forced the Assyrians to pay yearly tributes to the city of Babylon. Guarantees. Code of Hammurabi stele. Exploring the Primary Sources That Shaped the World: 2350 BCE – 1058 CE. Law #195. A very important point worth noting about the Hammurabi Code is the “lex talionis” doctrine (the “Law of Retaliation”). Hammurabi was famous not only for his military conquests but also for establishing the sets of judgment, a symbol of civilisation in Mesopotamia. [17] The code has been seen as an early example of a fundamental law, regulating a government – i.e., a primitive constitution. It greatly influenced a total dependence on the power of their one ruler, and it was a conscious effort to exalt the king as the source of earthly powers. The Code issues justice following the three classes of Babylonian society: property owners, freed men, and slaves. Today, the ancient city of Babylon is all submerged below a massive groundwater, leaving very little in terms of ruins. The code was discovered by modern archaeologists in 1901, and its editio princeps translation published in 1902 by Jean-Vincent Scheil. Tags: [15] These codes originate from similar cultures in a relatively small geographical area, and they have passages that resemble each other. These rules were then carved onto a large stone pillar for everyone to see. The code has much to say on medical matters, listing in particular the Rewards and penalties for a doctor undertaking surgery with his bronze operating knife. The purpose of the Legal Code of Hammurabi was to use political power to create common bonds among the diverse people of the society. Only one provision appears to impose obligations on a government official; this provision establishes that a judge who alters his decision after it is written down is to be fined and removed from the bench permanently. The king put together a written set of legal code that contained 282 rules. Laws in the Code of Hammurabi Inspecting the Code of Hammurabi is like looking through a window into ancient Babylon, a bustling agricultural empire with urban cen­ters. "[8] The laws were arranged in 44 columns and 28 paragraphs; some follow along the rules of "an eye for an eye". Historians believe that the stele was part of several items looted by the Elamite king Shutruk-Nahhunte from Hammurabi’s descendants. The city-state of Babylon at its peak was one of the most advanced, politically and socially, in the world. Code of Hammurabi | Hammurabi receiving the laws from the Babylonian god of justice and truth, Shamash, Tags: Ancient MesopotamiaBabylonCode of HammurabiEye for an eyeHammurabiHammurabi LawsLawslex talionis, thank you so much for the information. Milestone Documents in World History. It greatly influenced a total dependence on the power of their one ruler, and it was a conscious effort to exalt the king as the source, the only source, of Hammurabi’s code, a fine example of the “an eye for an eye” mentality of justice, was established in order to please the gods he worshipped. Vol. This in turn kept many societies very stable and less likely to have many criminal activities. I will have much more reading to do. These codes originate from similar cultures i… The Code of Hammurabi had the same punishment for every crime. Victimology: Theories and Applications, Ann Wolbert Burgess, Albert R. Roberts, Cheryl Regehr, Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2009, p. 103, For this alternative interpretation see Jean Bottéro, "The 'Code' of Hammurabi" in. Hammurabi created the Hammurabi Code to promote justice and peace in his country. Required fields are marked *. Examples of those crimes included adultery, spell casting, and robbery. Known today as the Code of Hammurabi, the 282 laws are one of the earliest and more complete written legal codes from ancient times. He was glorified as a ruler who spread peace, justice and civilization. 1. The colossal slab, which is about seven feet tall (2.13 meters), weighs in at around four tons. It greatly influenced a total dependence on the power of their one ruler, and it was a conscious effort to exalt the king as the source, the only source, of Hammurabi’s Code is among the oldest translatable writings. As for the slave, his/her bill was in the region of 2 silver shekels. Question: What was the purpose of Hammurabis code? [9], It was taken as plunder by the Elamite king Shutruk-Nahhunte in the 12th century BC and was taken to Susa in Elam (located in the present-day Khuzestan Province of Iran), where it was no longer available to the Babylonian people. ", What is a Constitution? The purpose of the Code of Hammurabi was to use political power to create common bonds among the diverse people of the society. He did what no other previous Babylonian king had done before. Hammurabi’s code talks about the entire world of ancient Babylon. In some cases, the guilty person could have his/her hands amputated for theft crimes. Each law is written in two parts: A specific situation or case is outlined, then a corresponding decision is given.[28]. limiting interest on loans and setting wages for workers. Hammurabi's code is a famous system of laws because it ... answer choices. Barton, a scientist of Semitic languages at the University of Pennsylvania from 1922 to 1931, stated that while there are similarities between the Mosaic Law and the Code of Hammurabi, a study of the entirety of both laws "convinces the student that the laws of the Old Testament are in no essential way dependent upon the Babylonian laws." However, its copying in subsequent generations indicates that it was used as a model of legal and judicial reasoning. The Code of Hammurabi is a 7-foot-tall piece of basalt with more than 300 laws engraved on it. Additionally, he was also credited with the spread of civilization to large parts of the Mesopotamia. what Hammurabi's Code, how many laws did it contain, why is this code special? [22] For example, if a doctor killed a rich patient, he would have his hands cut off, but if he killed a slave, only financial restitution was required. If a man damages the eye of another man, then the culprit shall have his eye destroyed. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. (2016), This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 00:47. At the south wall of the U.S. Supreme Court lies an amazing marble work of art with Hammurabi expertly carved into it. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Public Legal Education Association of Saskatchewan. Owing to its chemical properties, diorite does not easily lend itself to carving. He united the various smaller city-states across Mesopotamia under his rule. It helped proliferate the lex talionis doctrine. [13] The code of laws was arranged in orderly groups, so that all who read the laws would know what was required of them. [25][26], In July 2010, archaeologists reported that a fragmentary Akkadian cuneiform tablet was discovered at Tel Hazor, Israel, containing a c. 1700 BC text that was said to be partly parallel to portions of the Hammurabi code. One of the best surviving examples of the code is written on the "diorite stele". However, today he is most famous for a series of judgments inscribed on a large stone stele and dubbed Hammurabi's Code. This prevented people from acting arbitrary. [22], Punishments for someone assaulting someone from a lower class were far lighter than if they had assaulted someone of equal or higher status. Owing to the … If any one ensnare another, putting a ban upon him, but he can not prove it, then he that ensnared him shall be put to death. Other notable achievements of Hammurabi came in the sheer scale of the social and economic projects he rolled out. The code set rules for slaves, freed men, and the freeborn people of the city-state of Babylon. It consists of his legal decisions that were collected toward the end of his reign and inscribed on a diorite stela set up in Babylon’s temple of Marduk , the national god of Babylonia . [20] The occasional nature of many provisions suggests that the code may be better understood as a codification of Hammurabi's supplementary judicial decisions, and that, by memorializing his wisdom and justice, its purpose may have been the self-glorification of Hammurabi rather than a modern legal code or constitution. Louvre Museum, Paris. The content written by our service is totally original and free from all kinds of plagiarism. The Code of Hammurabi was one of the only sets of laws in the ancient Near East and also one of the first forms of law. He used death as a penalty and therefore helped to restore peace in his kingdom. How Hammurabi's Code actually reflects life in Old Babylonia will be the subject of the following activities. He conquered several city-states such as Mari, Larsa and Eshunna. Fant, Clyde E. and Mitchell G. Reddish (2008). These rules were then carved onto a large stone pillar for everyone to see. If one destroy the eye of a man's slave or break a bone of a man's slave he shall pay one-half his price. If one destroy the eye of a freeman or break the bone of a freeman he shall pay one gold mina. There was clearly a standard set out for fines and punishments. The Code of Hammurabi was a comprehensive set of laws, considered by many scholars to be the oldest laws established; they were handed down four thousand years ago by King Hammurabi of Babylon. Lewis and Clark Expedition: Summary, Team, Challenges, and Importance, The Boston Massacre: The American Revolution, Julius Caesar: History, Accomplishments and Facts. Dallas, TX: Schlager Group, 2010. And it is likely that the diversity is what drove Hammurabi to come up with his codes of law. The following are some major examples of the codes about trade, theft, murder, bearing false witness, and adultery: The Babylonian judges under the rule of Hammurabi steered away from pronouncing punishment until the accused was proven to be guilty. The process took about a year or so to complete. According to the code, if you strike your father, then your hands will be cut off. set of laws and there is 282 laws, oldest complete law code we have. The code also includes the earliest known construction laws, designed to align the incentives of builder and occupant to ensure that builders created safe homes: Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}48°51′40″N 2°20′11″E / 48.86111°N 2.33639°E / 48.86111; 2.33639, The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology). The significance of the Hammurabi Code lied in its ability to stop the strong in the society from preying on or oppressing the weak. Sitemap. Owing to his impressive feats of accomplishments, Hammurabi was in seen as a god in some circles. And if a person breaks another man’s bone, the bone of the culprit shall be broken (Law #196), If someone is found guilty of theft/robbery, then he shall be sentenced to death (Law #22), If a man gives false account or witness, then the man shall be put to death (Law #3), If goods of a merchant is given to an agent, then the agent shall furnish the merchant a receipt for the amount and thereafter compensate the merchant. Scholars have discovered that the ancient region of Mesopotamia had written laws prior to the Hammurabi’s Code. The code of laws was arranged in orderly groups, so that all who read the laws would know what was required of them. Hammurabi’s Code had its set of punishments (mostly harsh punishments) to ward of potential breakers of the law. The doctrine simply translates into “an eye for an eye”. Other provisions set the terms of a transaction, the liability of a builder for a house that collapses, or property that is damaged while left in the care of another. The purpose was for Hammurabi (sometimes written "Hammurapi") to set down a reasonable and unchanging set of laws that addressed common problems in his kingdom. Early estimates pegged the number of missing laws at 34, however the exact number is still not determined and only 30 have been discovered so far. Hammurabi’s Code about divorce and women’s rights. The magnitude of criminal penalties often was based on the identity and gender of both the person committing the crime and the victim. Hammurabi’s Code Primary Source Analysis teaches students about the culture of Babylon and it’s law code justice system through primary source document analysis. The purpose was for Hammurabi (sometimes written "Hammurapi") to set down a reasonable and unchanging set of laws that addressed common problems in his kingdom… The code itself tells archeologists a lot about the lives of the people of Babylon. Law #195. After Jacques de Morgan spectacular discovery, the stele of Hammurabi was sent to the famous Parisian museum, the Louvre. The Code included many bizarre and gruesome forms of punishment. The spectacular finding was made in 1901. Law #195 says "If a son has struck his father, his hands shall be cut off." These laws established stability and kept the society flourishing. Your email address will not be published. LAW #14. Hammurabi’s law of retribution was perhaps one of the reasons the city of Babylon flourished for quite some time. [16], The Code of Hammurabi is the longest surviving text from the Old Babylonian period. Works Cited. Hammurabi’s Laws in so many ways curbed the excesses of the wronged person in terms of retribution. Hammurabi, the ruler of Babylon, is best known for the development of a code of laws known as the Code of Hammurabi, which was used to regulate Mesopotamian society. The Prologue of the Code of Hammurabi (the first 305 inscribed squares on the stele) is on such a tablet, also at the Louvre (Inv #AO 10237). 57–84, Marc Van De Mieroop: A History of the Ancient Near East, second edition p. 296, Barton 2009, p. 406. Written in the dominant language at the time, the Akkadian language, the code provided a legal framework for the exchange of goods and services in the ancient city-state of Babylon. Capital crimes, meanwhile, were often met with their own unique and grisly death penalties. World History Edu © 2020. William David Thomas, Gareth Stevens (2008) p. 8. In the U.S. Capitol, a marvelous marble bas-relief of Hammurabi can be found. No Robert Mugabe or Muamar Gaddafi ....western propaganda....those guys fought for... What about Siad Bare of Somalia ??? Hammurabi's code of laws consists of 282 rules. The laws were strict and absolute. There are three social classes, the third of which are the slaves. no- punishment was based on class. 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