A "secondary victim" is a person who suffers nervous shock without himself being exposed to danger. A secondary victim is someone who, when witnessing an accident, suffers injury consequential upon the injury, or fear of injury, to a primary victim. Precedents, drafting notes & clauses 5. by secondary victims, sudden shock on witnessing the damage-causing event was incorporated as a key element of the claim.8 The need to link the relevant psychiatric injury to a sudden shock was implicitly affirmed in the seminal secondary victim case of McLoughlin v. 0'Brian,9 in which the House of Lords allowed a claim for Psychiatric injury—secondary victims. Alcock established the criteria necessary to demonstrate that it is fair, just and reasonable to impose a duty of care on secondary victims. Alcock v Chief Constable of South Yorkshire Police. Easier test to satisfy than the test establishing a duty of care to the secondary victims. This is a matter which has a direct bearing on the outcome of the present appeals. Many duty relationships have been recognised by the courts for a very long . The Victims’ Code has a special section for people who are under 18 because they should get extra support. As I have already recorded, we owe the distinction between primary and secondary victims to the opinion of Lord Oliver of Aylmerton in Alcock [1992] 1 A.C. 310, 407. The question whether there has been a breach of the duty of care involves two elements: how much care is required to be taken (the standard of care) and whether that care has been taken. The House of Lords ' Cases In any action for damages in the tort of negligence, the plaintiff has to prove that the defendant owes him a duty of care. It deals with already existing categories of duties of care established by the courts as well as considerations with regards to developing new categories. II. Compare the different interpretations of 'primary victim' by Lord Oliver in Alcock and Lord Lloyd in Page v Smith [1996].More recently the primary victim category has been extended to include the assumption of responsibility cases, including the 'stress at work' case law. The Education (Independent School Standards) Regulations 2014 (Part 3) Academies and independent schools are required to ensure that arrangements are made to safeguard and promote the welfare of pupils at the school. If this is the case, the school staff should report their concerns to their local authority children’s social care. 1. Secondary victims. The UK continues to play an important part in the effort to tackle modern slavery and support victims. Secondary victims: “control mechanisms” (1) The psychiatric injury arose from witnessing the injury or death of, or extreme danger or discomfort to, the primary victim (2) The injury arose from sudden and unexpected shock (3) There were close ties of love and affection between the primary and secondary victims Psychiatric harm is a special duty problem, which arises out the principles of the law of negligence which is the duty of care. THE ELEMENTS OF THE NEW STATUTORY DUTY OF CARE WHERE THE DEFENDANT IS NOT THE IMMEDIATE VICTIM 6.24-6.49 90 (1) Those to whom the new duty of care is owed: a close tie of love and affection Secondary stress occurs when the caregivers experience a host of symptoms that arise in the course of, and due to the care of, the trauma victim. These are organisations like the police and the courts. 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